Muscatine Study

Bogalusa Heart Study

Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH) Study

Minneapolis Childhood Cohort Studies

Princeton Lipid Research Clinics Study

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS)

 

 
 

Muscatine Study

The Muscatine Study began in 1970 with the aim to examine the early history of cardiovascular disease in Muscatine, Iowa, located on the Mississippi River in southeast Iowa. From the 1970-1971 school year through the 1980-1981 school year, six biennial surveys of all children registered for school in the catchment area were conducted. A total of 11,377 children aged 5-18 years participated in one to six examinations during the school-survey phase.

A young adult follow-up component was introduced between 1982-91 when 2,547 of those that first participated as children and adolescents in the school surveys were re-examined one or two times when aged 20-33 years. A second phase of adult follow-up was conducted between 1992-2008 when a representative subset of 865 individuals aged 29-43 years who had attended the young adult follow-up examination(s) were recruited to participate in several examinations focused on subclinical disease assessments.

The examinations have included data collection using questionnaires, physical measurements, dietary interviews and blood tests. The main study variables included serum lipids, blood pressure, and obesity indices at baseline. During subsequent follow-ups, the battery of measures increased substantially to also include data on general health, e.g. medications, psychology, socioeconomic status and life-style (including physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol use), additional biochemistry (lipoproteins, insulin, glucose, C-reactive protein), and vascular ultrasound and coronary calcium studies.

www.muscatineheartstudy.org

Bogalusa Heart Study

The Bogalusa Heart Study began in 1973 as a long term study of the early natural history of cardiovascular disease in the semirural town of Bogalusa, Louisiana. More than 12,000 individuals, many with multiple exams, have participated in the study.

The initial survey in 1973-74 included over 3,500 children at ages 0 to 14. A physical examination was conducted and information was collected on anthropometric measures, hemoglobin, blood pressure, serum lipids, and health history. The second cross-sectional survey in 1976-77 and subsequent surveys expanded the eligible population to include all children ages 5-17 years. The second survey of over 4,000 children also included information on salt intake and smoking. The third survey of over 3,500 children in 1978-79 collected additional anthropometric measurements of skinfold thicknesses and heart rate. The fourth survey of over 3,300 children in 1981-82 added data on alcohol use, Type A behavior and dietary habits. The fifth screening began in 1988 and extended through December 1994.

Adult follow-ups with the most comprehensive examinations were conducted beginning in 1995 and continue to the present. The CVD risk related phenotypes include obesity, blood pressure, lipids, lipoproteins, apoproteins, homocysteine, glucose-insulin, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and von Willebrand Factor, and echocardiography measures of ventricular geometry and function. Environmental risk factors consist of sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco and alcohol use, oral contraception, physical activity and diet. Measures of subclinical atherosclerosis include ultrasound measurements of carotid artery structure and function. In addition, data for GWA investigations are available in a sub-population.

tulane.edu/som/cardiohealth

Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is the largest prospective cardiovascular study in Europe with a follow-up from childhood to adulthood. The study has longitudinally collected information on serum lipoproteins, obesity indices, blood pressure, heart rate variability, behavioral characteristics, physical activity, socioeconomic aspects, nutrition, and vascular phenotypes.

The first cross-sectional study was performed in 1980, and included 3,596 children and adolescents aged 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 years. Between 1980 and 2011, this cohort has been regularly followed up. The examinations have included data collection using questionnaires, physical measurements, dietary interviews and blood tests.

The main study variables have included serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, obesity indices, insulin, glucose, life-style, family risk (cardiovascular, hypertension, diabetes), socioeconomic and psychological variables. Vascular ultrasound studies were performed in the most recent follow-ups among altogether over 2,700 participants. Data on general health, e.g. medications, psychology, socioeconomic status and life-style (including physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol use) have been collected using detailed questionnaires or interviews. Physical examination has been performed to collect data on anthropometry (waist and hip circumferences, body mass index) and blood pressure. Fasting blood samples have been collected for biochemical analysis. Data for GWA investigations are available for members of the adult cohort. In the latest follow-up in 2011-12 additional examinations of cardiac and liver ultrasound, retinal artery photography and cognitive testing were performed.

youngfinnsstudy.utu.fi

Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH) Study

In 1985, a national survey was arranged in Australia that collected information on cardiovascular risk factors from 8,498 Australian school children. The study has collected data at two time-points (once in childhood and once in adulthood), and a second adult follow-up is planned to be started in 2013-14.

The 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey was established to provide comprehensive and representative data on the levels of fitness, health and physical performance of Australian school children aged 7-15 years. All Australian schools with enrolments above 200 students were eligible for selection. Clinics were arranged to collect a range of measurements, including: field tests (height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, field-based fitness), technical tests (muscular strength, skin fold thicknesses, blood pressure, lung function, sub-maximal fitness), laboratory-based tests (maximal fitness, body density), fasting blood samples (lipid and lipoprotein variables), and questionnaire (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and health). Field tests were completed by all participants. Technical tests and blood samples were collected on those aged 9, 12, and 15 years.

Although not initially intended to be followed up, 6,840 (81%) of these children (then adults) were traced between 2001 and 2004, before 2,410 of these attended one of 34 follow-up field clinics held Australia wide from 2004 to 2006 when aged 26-36 years. A number of measures obtained in 1985 were repeated, with new measures of arterial function/structure from ultrasound imaging, left ventricular echocardiography, biochemistry (glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein), objective physical activity, and mental health included. Information about medical history, current health, social circumstances, diet and level of physical activity was obtained through questionnaires. Blood samples were taken for DNA. In 2009, a second adult follow-up of this group was initiated using questionnaire- and phone-based interview to provide prospective adult data on mental health, socioeconomic circumstance, and behavioral measures (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, diet).

www.menzies.utas.edu.au/article.php?Doo=ContentView&id=887

Minneapolis Childhood Cohort Studies

The Minnesota cohort consists of three separate cohort studies, with recruitment during childhood and with repeated examinations into the third-fourth decades.

The first study was started in 1978 with school screening of 13,000 Minneapolis, MN school children and random recruitment of approximately 1,200 7-9 year olds who were followed yearly until age 20 with blood pressure and anthropometric measures.  They were seen at age 24 for anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood tests and an oral glucose tolerance test.  They (current age 40), along with their children, are currently being seen for anthropometric and blood pressure measures, blood tests, vascular studies and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies.

The second study started in 1985 with screening of 20,000 Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN 5th-8th grade students and recruitment into a 4 year dietary study of sodium and potassium.  The initial examination included anthropometric, blood pressure and blood studies.  They were seen a second time at age 25-30 for the same studies and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp.

The third study started in 1995 with screening of 13,000 Minneapolis, MN 5th-8th grade students and recruitment of 400 who were seen at mean ages 13, 15, 19 and 24 for anthropometric, blood pressure, blood studies, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps at each visit, body composition by DXA, vascular studies and abdominal CT at the latter visits.

In summary, a total of 1,817 participants have been followed longitudinally in the Minnesota studies, beginning at age 7-14; of these, repeat examination data are available for 1,300 participants aged ≥25 years. In all 3 studies a wide range of risk factor measures were collected. A unique feature of these studies is the information obtained, in cohorts of all ages, on insulin sensitivity by using the gold standard measure of insulin sensitivity, the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Many of the measures, including the insulin clamps also have been obtained and repeated in parents, children and siblings of the cohort. Blood samples for DNA are available in >95% of the cohort.

Princeton Lipid Research Clinics Study

The Lipid Research Clinics (LRC) Prevalence Study was a multi-stage epidemiologic survey of lipids, lipoprotein cholesterol, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in selected North American populations. The LRC Study Population was drawn from all public and parochial schools in the Princeton City School District (PSD) near Cincinnati, OH, and included all children in grades 1-12 and a random subset of parents selected by household. The school population was 73% white and 27% black, 52% male and 48% female. Stage 1 of the LRC survey included 6775 students in grades 1-12 (ages 6-18) with measures of fasting total cholesterol and triglycerides, basic demographic information, and each participant’s relationship (if any) to the first person seen from that family. Of eligible children in the PSD, 84% participated in Stage 1 assessments, and participation did not differ by race. Stage 2 of the LRC, conducted ~6 weeks later, included a 15% random sample of Stage 1 participants plus any Stage 1 participants with hyperlipidemia (N~1500). Of eligible Stage 1 participants, 91% participated in Stage 2. Stage 2 collected data on measured height, weight, triceps skinfolds, fasting lipids, plus blood pressure, diet (24-hour recall), family history of CVD, current medications, and (12-channel) clinical chemistries. LDL cholesterol was estimated using the Friedwald formula. The LRC Family Study conducted 6-12 months after Stage 2 (1976-1978), studied the Stage 2 risk factors (except blood pressure) in all first-degree relatives of selected index cases from the Visit 2 sample. Thus, the Family Study cohort included students measured in Stage 1 and/or 2, the student’s siblings not included in Stage 2, and the student’s parents and other close relatives.

The Princeton Follow-up Study (PFS) was designed to assess changes in the familial correlations of LDL-C from the period of shared households (when the students were children) to the period of separate households (when the students, now adults, lived on their own: mean age 38 years). The PFS study sample includes family dyads and triads from Visit 2 comprised of both parent-child and sibling combinations and complete families from Visit 3. Between 1999 and 2004, the PFS staff located and got follow-up data on 1632 former LRC participants, about 70% of eligible subjects after a 30-year break in contact. Approximately 2/3 of the PFS study sample (n=1066) were former students sampled in LRC visits 1, 2 and/or 3. An ongoing health update is being conducted in the PFS population (2010-2011), with the goal to ascertain the current health status of participants. To date, nearly 400 former students have participated in this update (mean age ~48 years), with recruitment ongoing.

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS)

The NGHS was originally a 10-year longitudinal cohort study to identify the origins of the racial differences in obesity in black and white women and its effects on CVD risk factors (HC55023-25 and HL48941). NGHS was a collaborative effort of three clinical centers in the US: Richmond CA (Univ of California, Berkeley), Cincinnati OH (Children’s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati Medical Center) and Washington DC (Westat, Inc.), plus a Coordinating Center (Maryland Medical Research Institute in Baltimore MD), and the NHLBI Program Office. 

The cohort members were self-identified black and white girls within two weeks of age 9 or 10 years at enrollment and were followed initially for five years with annual clinic visits.  The initial 5-year study began in 1987, and the study was extended twice to result in 10 years of collaborative data collection (1987-1996).  Annual measurements included dietary intake, physical activity, family history of CVD and diabetes, family structure, health beliefs and attitudes, and standardized psycho-social measures.  Anthropometry measurements included height, weight, skinfold thicknesses (triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac), and circumferences (thigh, hip and waist [beginning in year 2]).  Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Pubertal maturation was assessed annually until the cohort was post-menarchal.  Outcome measures included blood pressure (measured annually) and fasting lipid profiles (measured in Years 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10). 

Two follow-up studies were conducted using the Cincinnati cohort of the NGHS, extending follow-up of over 550 girls into adulthood (age 28). From 1996-2001, NGHS subjects were examined yearly over a 5-year period, when the women were aged 19-24.  From 2001-7, the NGHS cohort was studied twice, two years apart, at ages 25-26 and 27-28.  Data included abdominal adiposity measured using magnetic resonance imaging, overall adiposity measured by DXA, blood pressure, fasting lipid profile, fasting insulin and glucose, as well as diet and physical activity.

 

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